In order to understand how stem cells are useful to us, we first need to understand what these cells are. Stem Cells start in the embryo as immature biological cells, then become specialized to create bone, muscle, skin, the heart, the brain, and over 250 other types of specialized cells. This is why they are of such value to scientists doing both basic research in the lab and medical research in the clinic. They have the potential to regenerate tissue and cells that have been lost because of disease or injury.
Stem cell therapy has been used to cure a number of health conditions such as heart diseases, neurodegenerative ailments, and diabetes, with bone-marrow transplant being the most commonly used for this type of therapy. There are many ways in which this cell therapy can be conducted, however, stem cells derived from the umbilical cord blood are the safest to use for treatment. Moreover, these cells from young individuals possess superior naivety and plasticity than those from adults.
Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) is the most commonly found abnormality at birth, where the structure and function of the heart is not normal. In 2014, this congenital anomaly affected more than 1% of live born infants and accounted for more than 2.5 million affected children per year worldwide. CHD now occurs in approximately 7-8 out of 1000 live births, a slight improvement. Recent estimations reveal that up to 80% of newborns and infants with CHD are likely to reach adulthood, which can result in a high likelihood for complications later in life.
The cause of congenital heart disease is usually a combination of genetic and environmental factors. While some congenital heart diseases can be treated with medicine alone, others need to be treated with one or more heart surgeries.
In 2006, research at the Boston Children’s Hospital revealed that the heart has its own source of stem cells. These cells can form two major types of heart cells: myocardial cells (the muscles that, together, contract to make the heart beat) and smooth muscle cells (the lining of the heart’s blood vessels). This finding by Stuart Orkin, MD, and Sean Wu, MD, PhD, gave researchers a better insight in to how the heart forms, and also gave fillip to the concept of treating diseased or defective heart tissue with heart stem cells.
In January 2013, a study led by Bernhard Kuhn at the Boston Children’s Hospital found for the first time that young humans (infants, children and adolescents) are capable of generating new heart muscle cells. These findings gave rise to the possibility that scientists could stimulate production of new cells to repair injured hearts.
A team of researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital reported in PNAS Early Edition (July 2013 issue) that they were able to create blood vessels in laboratory mice using human stem cells. The authors explained that using stem cells to repair or regenerate blood vessels could eventually help treat human patients with cardiovascular and vascular diseases.
Stem cell based strategies to cure heart failure in adults have been investigated with promising results; however, stem cell therapy strategies for the pediatric population with heart failure are in its infancy. Further clinical trial studies will be needed to understand the cell biology in order to optimize their regenerative potential.
When it comes to cardiovascular disease or CVD, there are two types of risk factors – those you can control and those you cannot. Knowing the different risk factors, both controllable and uncontrollable can help you take proper steps to stay healthy and keep problems at bay.
Factors You Can Control
Hypertension or high blood pressure is the leading cause of premature death due to cardiovascular disease. The high pressure overworks and weakens the heart muscles, resulting in cardiovascular problems. Those who have hypertension are also more likely to develop other complications.
Diabetes or high blood sugar increases the risk of cardiovascular problems about 2 to 3 times. The higher the sugar levels, the higher the risk. Unfortunately, diabetes is often diagnosed too late, resulting in serious complications such as strokes, blindness, amputations and CVD.
Leading a sedentary lifestyle is the 4th leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Insufficient physical activity can put you at higher risk for hypertension, diabetes and obesity, all of which are precursors for CVD. Engaging in at least 30 minutes of moderate intensity activity 3-4 times a week can lower your risk significantly.
People who are overweight usually also have high blood sugar, high blood pressure and glucose intolerance. All of these conditions put considerable pressure on the arteries and heart muscles, resulting in cardiovascular disease.
Statistics indicate that high cholesterol is responsible for about 1/3rd ischaemic heart disease globally. When your cholesterol level is high, fatty deposits form within the blood vessels. These fatty deposits narrow the diameter of the blood vessels, obstructing the free flow of blood to the heart. This insufficient blood flow weakens and damages the cardiovascular muscles increasing the risk of stroke.
Smoking or ingesting tobacco hardens the arteries and obstructs blood flow to the heart. As much as 10 % of all related problems are related to tobacco use, especially smoking. Some studies have shown that the risk reduces significantly within 2 years of abstaining from tobacco use.
What you eat plays a huge role in leading to cardiovascular disease or protecting you from it. Consuming too much salt, processed foods or saturated fats and not enough vegetables, fruit and fish are detrimental to the health of your heart. A healthy diet consisting mainly of vegetables, fruit and fish reduces the risk of diabetes, high blood pressure and obesity, which in turn reduces the risk of related disease.
Uncontrollable Risk Factors
Age, gender and family history are the three uncontrollable risk factors for CVD. While the factors themselves cannot be controlled, going for regular checkups is necessary so that proper precautionary measures can be put in place.
Every second person you speak to seems complaining or suffering from some sort of cardiovascular issues. Measuring blood pressure indicates the force against the wall of the arteries, as well the pumping of the heart.
Most people are of the opinion that salt is the biggest culprit for cardiovascular disease, or at least they’ve been told so? The theory that salt is bad for you and increases heart disease is an old hat and been proven wrong for decades. To reduce salt too much has had a number of draw backs and is affecting other things in your body.
There is strong evidence, that not salt is the main issue for high blood pressure but incorrect potassium to sodium balance is. Not having the right balance between the two of them increases the risk for hypertension and heart disease by far more than salt or high levels of sodium alone.
Most people are not aware of the fact that potassium is an essential mineral which plays an important role in regards to your blood pressure. What matters is the balance between salt and potassium. The first step: Replace the refined table salt with natural salt for a better balance of potassium. As salt is getting the blame for high blood pressure, sugar and trans fats are far worse and having the most impact for cholesterol and heart disease.
In general, our diet being the biggest amount of processed foods consumed by many, which is lacking of potassium. To lower salt levels in processed foods, monosodium glutamate (MSG) being added to processed food, two things happened: This enhanced the flavor in foods and reduced the salt, but created a number of other health problems. What this meant, processed food with all its preservatives, flavor enhancer (MSG) etc. which in general gives the average person twice as much sodium as potassium. As well the other thing is mineral and magnesium deficiency, of which is very little found in processed food; this is also damaging your heart and arteries. Magnesium is critical for healthy blood pressure and is too often lacking in our daily diet. Magnesium also helps lower blood volume, supports blood vessels and keeps the arteries smooth and elastic.
What We Eat
As we know too many processed foods are the trigger point for most illnesses. These foods are high in refined sugar, refined sodium, trans – fats which is the main cause for high blood pressure. Changing to a more natural diet will improve overall condition including lowering of blood pressure and cholesterol. We should eat more of the leafy greens, vegetables, mushrooms, berries, avocados, natural Creek yogurt, wild caught salmon, fish oil etc. Another one is grape seed extract which is an excellent blood pressure support. As grapes are high in fructose which can worsen insulin and leptin resistance. Using grape seed extract will not affect the insulin level, it will help blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar level.
Such foods that have a high amount of potassium, magnesium and minerals to lower blood pressure, as well to improve your overall health, are a safe, natural comprehensive protection without any side effects. Medical research has discovered literally thousands of healing nutrients in foods.
Food is the cause of most of our health problems, and food is also the solution. The most important step to a healthy life is the change to a healthy diet! Also, a safe measure and protection to add a good multi supplement that has a variety of minerals and all the nutrients.
Reducing medication to avoid some of the risky side effects even from warfarin, people have looked to aspirin for daily heart support. Taking aspirin every day for blood thinning and to reduce stroke risk is not a cure or a satisfactory alternative.
Although, aspirin is not as harmful as many other medications, aspirin is a natural pain reliever and one of the safest ones to use, as well it lowers fever and inflammation. Some of the later research has found that aspirin is not the answer for blood pressure and thinning of blood as previous thought.
Some medication may be excepted for short-term use. The longer to stay on medication the higher becomes the risk factor and the increase of side effects.
Because of our growing population and the ever increasing of dementia it is especially important for us to preserve our overall health and well-being. One of the best ways for us to do so it is to regulate our blood pressure.
However, before we can regulate our blood pressure, we must become aware of some of the major causes of it. Many of these causes can be avoided with a bit of awareness and self-control as well as a commitment to our overall health and well-being.
Here are the ten of the main causes of blood pressure.
1. Excess salt intake in our diet is a major cause of hypertension. Excess salt intake tightens the blood vessels and increases the resistance to the flow of blood, resulting in hypertension.
2. Excess sugar also causes blood pressure problems. The sugar that we consume when we drink too much pop, eat too much cereal or too many cakes biscuits or muffins can cause difficulties for us.
3. Obesity also causes high blood pressure. Obesity is a growing problem in our western world. Excess fat squeezes the major blood vessels in the body which in turn causes hypertension.
4. Smoking contributes to hypertension. So, we should think of getting rid of our nicotine habit, if we have one. With every puff of smoke you take, your blood turns a little less red and a little blue, depriving your brain of the energy it needs to function properly.
5. Excessive and persistent alcohol intake can lead to higher blood pressure. Excessive drinking is defined by the medical literature as two or more drinks a day.
6. A sedentary lifestyle may be increasingly imposed on us by modern life’s demands and the wired world. We certainly sit a lot more than our ancestors did. And this is increasing our blood pressure and obesity rates at an alarming rate every year.
7. Insufficient or poor quality sleep can also contribute to high blood pressure. Sleeping in long enough to feel rested is not a luxury. It is an opportunity for the brain to rejuvenate itself and for the proper blood supply to reach our brains.
8. Persistent loneliness, high anxiety and depression can also cause hypertension. These conditions can impair our mind and the flow of the blood to our heart.
9. Excess stress can cause problems too. This is because when we are stressed our arteries get overworked and clots and clogs are possible over the long term.
10. Noise also can cause an increase in heart rate. This is especially the case for noise that is irritating to the ears.
By trying to avoid some of these causes of stress, you will be working towards reducing your blood pressure. And this is so important for overall quality of life. This is because without an effectively functioning heart, you cannot have a good quality of life.
Many have likely heard from their dentist or others how oral health is essential for one’s overall health, with it being impossible for one to be totally isolated from the other. As of recent calculations, over 80 percent of Americans live with periodontal disease, with many usually never receiving a formal diagnosis.
This could be because a patient’s teeth might feel fine, thus he or she avoids the dentist, and doctor’s visits are rarely focused on a patient’s oral health. However, patients may be surprised to learn there could be a couple of links between heart disease and oral health.
For instance, recent studies indicate that if someone has mild or advanced gum disease, he or she has a greater chance of developing heart disease compared to someone who has healthy gums. As well, oral health can provide warning signs for doctors on a variety of conditions and diseases, such as those involving the heart.
How are They Related?
Heart disease and oral health are connected due to bacteria as well as other germs spreading from the mouth to different parts of the body through the bloodstream. If they spread to the heart, these bacteria could attach to any area with damage, thereby causing inflammation.
This could lead to illnesses like endocarditis, which is an infection of the heart’s inner lining. As well, other conditions like stroke or clogged arteries (atherosclerosis) have been linked with inflammation that is caused by bacteria of the mouth.
Which Patients are at Risk?
Individuals with long-term gum conditions-gingivitis, advanced periodontal disease-are the most prone to heart disease brought on by oral health, especially if it continues to be unmanaged or undiagnosed. The bacteria from gum infections can pass into the bloodstream and attach to blood vessels, thereby increasing one’s risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
However, even without clear gum inflammation, poor oral hygiene in and of itself has the risk of causing gum disease, the bacteria of which could also get into the bloodstream and cause raised C-reactive protein-a sign of inflammation within blood vessels, which increases the risk of developing heart disease and even stroke.
To prevent the risk of heart disease, patients can start by avoiding the onset of gum disease. Some common symptoms include the following:
- Swollen, red gums that are sore to touch
- Bleeding gums during eating, brushing, or flossing
- Pus and other symptoms of infection around the teeth and gums
- Receded gums
- Bad breath (halitosis) or a bad taste
- Teeth that feel loose or like they’re moving away from other teeth
Preventative MeasuresRegular dental exams and good oral hygiene are the best ways of protecting yourself from developing gum disease. This includes brushing twice per day using a soft-bristled toothbrush and a fluoride toothpaste as well as flossing at least once daily.
Cardiac arrest is the most popular name for a disruption of the regular availability of blood flowing to any given portion of the heart muscle; physicians and scientists refer to the condition more formally as a myocardial infarction. Without its required availability of oxygen-bearing blood, the heart muscular will die off easily, producing a situation that can cause serious heart damage or rapid death. Those who use cocaine build a variety of issues in their regular cardiovascular (heart and blood vessel) health that contributes greatly to their heart attack risks. These issues occur in the aftermath of both short- and long-term cocaine use and affect even casual customers of the drug.
Cocaine is a hunger controller and powerful stimulant drug that comes from the coca plant, from which it derives its name. It is used for a variety of instantaneous results that it makes, including delusions of supremacy, euphoria, improved energy, and performance. As these results wear off, uneasiness, pressure, and paranoia can set in, as well as higher body temperatures, an elevated pulse rate and blood pressure levels, and difficulty breathing. The increase in blood pressure levels alone can cause cardiac arrest in some cases; however, it can also cause unequal heart beat, the issue known as arrhythmia, which can also be deadly. Long-term usage of cocaine can not only cause to habit but also dehydration and a dry mouth, which can cause to damage being done to the teeth. Kidney failure, autoimmune illnesses like lupus, and heart attacks are other risks that come with the prolonged use of cocaine. Cocaine is especially damaging to the heart because it carries with it the possibility of occasional small heart attacks, plus it interferes with cocaine such as try out blockers that physicians use to treat heart attacks.
Cocaine’s Effects on the Heart
Cocaine use triggers a significant boost in the body’s availability of a chemical known as norepinephrine, which acts as a neurotransmitter and boosts the frequency of certain types of communication between nerve cells known as nerves. Specifically, norepinephrine generates improving levels of activity in the nerves of a process known as the supportive neurological system, which divisions throughout the body and helps provide unconscious control of the heart muscle and blood vessels, as well as a variety of additional vital organs. When cocaine enters the bloodstream, activation of the supportive neurological system generates heart-related changes in regular body function including blood pressure increases, heartbeat acceleration, and an improve in the amount of blood pumped by the heart in any given minute.
Signs of Cocaine Abuse
· Cocaine is a highly addictive substance. What starts off as seemingly harmless experimentation can easily become a potentially life-threatening habit.
· By recognising the symptoms of cocaine misuse, you can get your loved one the help they need before a habit takes hold.
· According to the scientists, cocaine may damage in stomach area, difficulty breathing, pressure, palpitations, dizziness, nausea and heavy sweating and unless a doctor knows what they are dealing with, the standard therapy for heart attacks such as beta-blockers and clot-busting cocaine, could be given with tragic results if the individual has been using cocaine.
· Cocaine improves blood pressure levels which in turn can improve the possibility of bleeding into the brain if the individual is given clot-busting drugs; beta-blockers can cause greater blood pressure levels and constricted arteries in individuals who have used cocaine.
· Experts say in a portion of customer’s cocaine can actually cause cardiac arrest.
· Cocaine-related chest pain in stomach area usually occurs within three-times of using the cocaine, but the cocaine can stay in the body for at least 18 times and proceed to cause issues.
· The new guidelines say cocaine customers with chest pain in stomach area should be monitored in an observation unit for nine to 12 hours.
While only about 1 % to 6 % of patients with cocaine-associated chest pain actually have a cardiac arrest, physicians maintain it is important for anyone with chest pain in stomach area to get checked out.
Cocaine Abuse Treatment and House Remedies
· First and foremost, the cocaine abuser must quit using the cocaine and other cocaine that accompany its use. Not many problems of cocaine use may perhaps be treatable at your home. The most frequent problems are psychiatric in nature.
· Anxiety, light agitation, hunger loss, insomnia, irritability, light panic disorder, light depression, and light headaches could probably be handled at your home by avoiding the use of the cocaine and observing the user.
· Runny noses, nose blockage, and brief nosebleeds can be also be cared for you at your home by avoiding the cocaine, helping the humidity of the air breathed in with hookahs and humidifiers, and direct nose pressure for 10 minutes to end the nosebleed. Implement a topical antibiotic such as bacitracin or petroleum jelly to help with the drying and crusting. Avoid nose picking.
· The chronic coughing chest pain of black non-bloody phlegm may perhaps be treatable again by cessation of cocaine smoking and other cocaine such as cigarettes or marijuana. Over-the-counter coughing medicines containing the ingredient guaifenesin, the active compound in Robitussin, plus improved water drinking may help.
· IV cocaine customers who proceed to use cocaine may lower their exposure to communicable illnesses and disease by not reusing or sharing needles. Cleansing the skin properly prior to the injection also decreases the possibility of disease.
How to Avoid Cocaine Abuse
Prevention should start early in the preadolescent years for all kids but particularly for those who are in danger. This consists of kids in families with a history of any addiction such as alcohol addiction and cocaine misuse. However simplistic the concept, teaching youngsters to say “no” to using cigarettes, liquor, and cocaine is an excellent protection tool. If we can keep your kids and our generations to come from the gateway drugs of nicotine, liquor, and marijuana, then we may be able to avoid the escalation to harder drugs such as cocaine and other
People between the ages of 18 and 45 are particularly susceptible to a cocaine-induced heart attack, according to a study published in 2007 in the journal “Clinical Medicine & Research.” These hazards connect with all cocaine customers in this age group, whether or not they have a previous record of heart- or blood vessel-related health issues.